Theft (or larceny) is probably the most common crime involving the criminal intent. The crime of grand larceny in some U.S. jurisdictions consists of stealing more than a specified sum of money or property worth more than specified amount. The traditional definition of theft specified the physical removal of an object that was capable of being stolen, without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it forever. This intention, which has always been an essential feature of theft, does not necessarily mean that the thief must intend to keep the property -an intention to destroy it, or to abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found, is sufficient. In many legal systems the old definition has been found to be inadequate to deal with modem forms of property that may not be physical or tangible (a bank balance, for instance, or data stored on a computer), and more sophisticated definitions of theft have been adopted in modern legislation. The distinction that the common law made between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent, as a result of deception) has been preserved in many modern laws, but the two crimes are rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, as they were in the past. It is now accepted that an act may constitute both theft and fraud, as in the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile.
Burglary is the crime of breaking into dwelling or into a building by night with intent to commit a felony or to steal things. The essence of burglary is normally the entry into a building with a criminal intent. Entry without the intent to commit a crime is merely a trespass, which is not criminal in many jurisdictions. Although the motivations of most burglars is theft, but it is possible, for instance, to commit burglary with intent to rape.
Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence. It involves the application or the threat in order to commit the theft. Robbery lakes many forms – from the mugging or a stranger in the street, in the hope of stealing whatever he may happen to have in his possession, to much more sophisticated robberies of banks, involving numerous participants and careful planning.
2. Перекладіть українською мовою такі слова та словосполучення.
Physical removal, thief, trespass, sophisticated definition, to break into a dwelling, to commit a crime, robbery, violence, criminal intent, mugging.
3. Знайдіть у тексті та випишіть англійські еквіваленти таких слів та словосполучень:
Незнайомець, злочинне порушення володіння, нехтувати, видимий, крадіжка у великих розмірах, обман, грабувати на вулиці, тяжкий кримінальний злочин, наступний, нічна крадіжка зі зламуванням.
4. Визначте, чи відповідають змісту тексту такі речення. Дайте правильну відповідь.
1. Thievery is the most common crime involving a criminai intent.
2. Theft is the physical removal of an object with the consent of the owner.
3. The essence of burglary is normally the entry into a building with a peaceful intent.
4. Entry with the intent to commit a crime is merely a trespass.
5. The motivation of most burglars is to maintain a family.
6. Robbery is a practice of hypnotizing people in the street.
7. Robbery involves many participants and precise planning to steal things from a bank.
5. Дайте письмову відповідь на запитання.
1. What does the crime of grand larceny consist of?
2. What intention was the essential feature of theft?
3. What distinction did the common law make between theft and fraud?
4. What is not criminal in many jurisdictions?
5. What forms does robbery take?
6. Випишіть із тексту дієслова в пасивному стані, перекладіть їх. Визначте часову форму цих дієслів.